Jonathan Greer

Associate Professor of Old Testament and Director of the Hesse Memorial Archaeological Laboratory

Faculty Positions:

Grand Rapids Theological Seminary - Bible, Theology & Ministry

Staff Positions:

Grand Rapids Theological Seminary - Administration

Contact Jonathan Greer


As a biblical scholar and archaeologist, Dr. Jonathan Greer, associate professor of Old Testament, has in-depth knowledge of biblical backgrounds and the history of the ancient world that enrich his teaching. His graduate-level courses in biblical hermeneutics, Pentateuch, minor prophets and Hebrew exegesis advance understanding of the Old Testament and promote an informed reading of Scripture in light of its cultural and historical contexts.

Dr. Greer holds a doctoral degree in history, classics and ancient Mediterranean studies from The Pennsylvania State University where he focused on Hebrew Bible, with minor concentrations in Assyriology, Egyptology and archaeology.

A faculty member at Grand Rapids Theological Seminary since 2012, Dr. Greer directs the Hesse Memorial Archaeological Laboratory and co-leads the seminary's annual Ancient World of the Bible Study Tour with his wife, Jennifer Jackson Greer, adjunct instructor of Bible. He also serves as the associate director and staff zooarchaeologist for excavations at Tel Dan in northern Israel.


Select Articles and Book Chapters

"Drinking the Dregs of the Divine: Daniel 5 and the Motif of 'King and Cup' in its Ancient Near Eastern Context," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 79, no. 1 (2020): 99–112.

"Prohibited Pigs and Prescribed Priestly Portions: Zooarchaeological Remains from Tel Dan and Questions Concerning Ethnicity and Priestly Traditions in the Hebrew Bible," in Food Taboos and Biblical Prohibitions: Reassessing Archaeological and Literary Perspectives (2020). Eds. P. Altmann, A. Angelini and A. Spiciarich; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 73–85.

"The Animal Bone Remains," with D. Fulton and P. Wapnish in Dan IV: The Iron Age I Settlement: The Avraham Biran Excavations 1966–1999 (2020). Ed. D. Ilan; Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 571–85.

"From Flock to Temple to Table: The Sacrificial Animal of the Fellowship Offering in Ancient Israel in Text and Archaeology" in From Snout to Tail: Exploring the Greek Sacrificial Animal from the Literary, Epigraphical, Iconographical, Archaeological and Zooarchaeological Evidence, edited by G. Ekroth and J.–M. Carbon (Swedish Institute at Athens, forthcoming).

"The 'Priestly Portion' in the Hebrew Bible: Its Ancient Near Eastern Context and Its Implications for the Composition of P," Journal of Biblical Literature 138, no. 2 (2019).

"The Zooarchaeology of Israelite Religion: Methods and Practice," Religions 10, no. 4 (2019), special edition Archaeology and Israelite Religions.

"'Cursed Be the Cheat Who Offers a Blemished Animal!' A Broken Caprine Tibia from a Sacrificial Deposit at Tel Dan and Its Implications for Understanding Israelite Religious Practice" in The Wide Lens in Archaeology: Honoring Brian Hesse's Contribution to Anthropological Archaeology, edited by J. Lev-Tov, A. Gilbert and P. Wapnish (Lockwood Press, 2017).

"The Cult at Dan: Aramean or Israelite?" in Wandering Arameans: Arameans Outside Syria: Textual and Archaeological Perspectives, edited by A. Berlejung, A. Maeir, A. Schueler (Harrasowitz, 2017).

"How Do You Define Cultic Context?" in The Five-Minute Archaeologist in the Southern Levant, edited by C. Shafer-Elliot (Equinox, 2016).

"Power to Unite and Power to Divide: Sacred Feasting and Social Change at Iron II Tel Dan" in Feasting in the Archaeology and Texts of the Bible and the Ancient Near East, edited by P. Altmann and J. Fu (Eisenbrauns, 2014).

"New Archaeological Data for the Study of Ancient Israelite Religion and Society from Tel Dan," The Ancient Near East Today Vol. II, No. 1 (2014).

"Was 'Israelite' Sacrifice Practiced at Tel Dan?" in The Bible and Interpretation, edited by M. Elliott (2014).

"Cultic Practices at Tel Dan—Was the Northern Kingdom Deviant?," Biblical Archaeology Review 38:2 (2012): 26, 67.

"Scripts of Animal Sacrifice in Levantine Culture-History" with B. Hesse and P. Wapnish in Sacred Killing: The Archaeology of Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, edited by A. Porter and G. Schwartz (Eisenbrauns, 2012).

"An Israelite Mizraq at Tel Dan?," Bulletin for the American Schools of Oriental Research 358 (2010): 27-45.

"A Chiastic Key to a Text-critical Crux in Lamentations 3:22," The Bible Translator: Technical Papers Division 60/3 (2009): 184–86.

"A Marzeah and a Mizraq: A Prophet's Mêlée with Religious Diversity in Amos 6.4-7," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32 (2007): 243–62.

Select Encyclopedia Entries

"The Sanctuaries at Dan and Bethel" in SBL's NEH project Bible Odyssey (2014).

"Dan (Place)" with D. Ilan in the Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception Volume 6, edited by D. C. Allison, V. Leppin, C.-L. Seow, H. Spieckermann, B. D. Walfish and E. J. Ziolkowski (W. de Gruyter, 2013).

"Deuteronomistic History" with G. Knoppers in the Oxford Bibliography Online: Biblical Studies, edited by C. Matthews (Oxford University Press, 2010).

"Kings, 1 and 2" with G. Knoppers in the Oxford Bibliography Online: Biblical Studies, edited by C. Matthews (Oxford University Press, 2010).


  • Ph.D., History/Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, The Pennsylvania State University (2011)
  • M.A., Biblical Languages, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (2003)
  • M.A., Old Testament, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (2001)
  • B.A., Health and Physical Education, Messiah College (1995)


—Bible and archaeology
—Latter prophets
—Israelite religion and history
—Ancient Near Eastern languages and cultures